Successful Postpartum With Ayurveda

Successful Postpartum with Ayurveda
A successful postpartum involves complete recovery and rejuvenation of tissues after childbirth, healthy digestion and feeling happy and joyful about motherhood. Ayurveda, the traditional medicine of India, shines light on how to care for new mothers and their babies. Ayurveda understands the changes that women undergo during childbirth and what is required for proper recovery and rejuvenation. According to Ayurveda, one of the most sacred periods in a woman’s life is the 42 days (six weeks) after giving birth. This time is considered possibly more important than the pregnancy itself! This postpartum period is a unique window which calls for special care. Ayurvedic medicine embraces a broader scope of practice using ancient knowledge and skills to rejuvenate new mothers and their babies. Ayurveda is a way of living with the awareness that you are connected with the environment.

During pregnancy, tremendous changes happen physically, emotionally, mentally and spiritually. The tendency in the modern culture is to regard pregnancy as nothing different than there is a baby growing inside and that life continues as usual, and it is common that women go back to work few weeks after the delivery, wanting to get back to their active life as soon as possible. The thing is that after childbirth, new mothers are as delicate as their newborn baby physically, mentally and emotionally for six weeks postpartum. In case of a C-section or complications, this period is longer. Thus, there is a great need for women to understand the importance of rejuvenation after childbirth; allowing time and space to turn their attention inward and to listen to their bodies.

Preparing For A Natural Pregnancy - Dr Neelesh Korde

The Best Time For Mating
Dr Neelesh Korde explains that the ancient Rishis recommended that the time between midnight and 3 am is most appropriate for mating as it is when nature is most still and calm. Child Birth is an important duty for every human being to fulfill. Pregnancy is not something that should happen by accident but rather be planned and prepared for. One must prepare their bodies by cleansing through the Pancha karma routine before mating in order to ensure that both partners are in the best health and they have detoxified their bodies which would then be ready to safely nourish and develop a strong and healthy child.

After Childbirth
After childbirth, every new Mom’s digestive power is diminished and digestive issues are common such as irregular appetite, gas, bloating, constipation and abdominal cramps. Thus a new mother’s need for nourishing and delicious foods is very high. Appropriate nutrition during postpartum will minimize difficulties for both Mom and her breastfeeding baby.

Heidi Nordlund’s new Ayurvedic e-cook book called Cooking for Postpartum with Ayurveda is designed to correct the imbalances that naturally occur after childbirth and to support proper nutrition and rejuvenation for Mom and Baby. In addition to 35+ specialized Ayurvedic postpartum recipes, this cook book includes:

  • The Ayurvedic view on postpartum
  • Detailed lists of which vegetables, fruits, proteins, carbohydrates and fats to prefer during postpartum
  • 14 things to avoid during postpartum
  • The best formula recipe for babies
  • Information about why ghee (clarified butter) is a must have in your kitchen
  • Important things to know about cow’s milk

This cook book is essential in the hands of everyone who is cooking for a new Mom.
Available at

Postpartum is often a challenging time for a new family. It is important to know that when the mother is happy, the rest of the family is also happy. When Mom knows how to take care of herself during this sacred time, she experiences great benefits such as:

  • Faster recovery and rejuvenation
  • Uplifted and positive state of mind
  • Improved digestion (minimal constipation or gas)
  • Proper elimination (no constipation)
  • Enhanced milk supply
  • Stronger immunity
  • Deeper bonding with baby
  • Easier relationship with husband

Postpartum depression affects about 15% of new moms (1 in 7 women). Approximately 4 million babies are born each year which means that at least 600,000 women in the U.S. suffer from postpartum depression annually. For 1000's of years, Ayurveda has supported women during this sacred time offering the solutions for a successful postpartum.

Heidi Nordlund
About Heidi Nordlund
Heidi Nordlund is a Certified Advanced Practitioner of Ayurveda (Ayurved Bhishakgwar) with multiple degrees in Ayurvedic Medicine from Alandi Ayurveda Gurukula in Boulder, CO and the Rocky Mountain Institute for Yoga and Ayurveda. Heidi is the founder of Namaskar Healing™, LLC and has been practicing for more than a decade. She is available for healing sessions and private consultations in person and via phone.

Heidi is a Certified Postpartum AyurDoula and is passionate about supporting women through their sacred postpartum window. Heidi understands the need for tender loving care during this special time and is grateful for the opportunity to make a difference in the lives of new mothers and that of their newborn baby.

Heidi is also a Tibetan Cranial Practitioner and Yoga Instructor and Therapist, and has earned certifications from the Ayurvedic Institute in Albuquerque in herbal medicine (Dravyaguna Vijnan), clinical practicum, pulse reading (Nadi Vijnan) and healing of vital energy points (Marma Chikitsa).

The multifaceted developmental and healing modalities that Heidi offers are consistently effective in improving health and wellness resulting in enhanced vitality and well-being. Clients find inspiration and healing in her practical skills and caring wisdom resulting from many years of specialized training and practice.

Heidi was born and raised in Denmark; she moved to the United States in 2002 to engage with enduring dedication in an ongoing deepening learning and application of spiritual healing disciplines. Heidi continues to deepen and advance her spiritual connection through personal dedication to devotional practices.

Contact Heidi Nordlund at 720-771-8534 ׀ ׀

“I am so very grateful for your presence in my life, Heidi. I am also ever grateful for the true healing on a deep level. The work you and I have done is nothing short of a miracle for me. I feel more awake and attuned to my spirit and earthly body than I have in many, many long years. Thank you!” Elizabeth B., Fort Collins, CO

“I cannot express to you, how grateful I am to have you in my life. I have felt the best ever in the last few weeks since we started treatment. I'm very excited for the next step in the journey with Ayurvedic herbs, and further cranial treatment.” Christina F., Longmont, CO

"The wisdom and sense of inner ease attained through Heidi's professionalism, knowledge of Ayurveda and most of all her own wisdom, are priceless. My physical body has been transformed from the inside out in just two months of work with her. I feel blessed, confident and hopeful about my health and wellbeing in despite of Drs. Outlook." Candice B., Denver, CO

“I don't have words to thank you for the day I was lead and blessed to meet you, be guided in finally knowing how to eat, take care of my body, my mind, and my rhythms. I am finally content and peaceful being, being a mother, knowing these years are for my self love and mothering, and the future will unfold as my destiny appears to me along the path. We have four finally mantras we do in the morning now, one is "I see you, I hear you, I love you, I embrace you," with corresponding gestures, and one is the Navajo song Now I walk in beauty. My husband and I are sweetly relating, I am full of self love and peace, and I am listening and graceful like I haven't been in many years with him. We are restoring our deep friendship. You are truly an earth angel, and I'm so thankful you are following your destiny and offering your gifts. Thank you thank you thank you thank you." Sarah L., Boulder, CO

"Through her excellent intuitive ability and her most compassionate, empathetic and astute sense of observation, she truly starts you on your own invaluable, individual journey to healing yourself on all levels. The simple suggestions along with the herbs she recommends in order to get you back into balance are so perfectly tailored to address your specific concerns and needs, it is uncanny - they all work! She is truly a blessing to this world." J.J. Albany, NY

The sole purpose of these articles is to provide information about the tradition of ayurveda. This information is not intended for use in the diagnosis, treatment, cure or prevention of any disease. If you have any serious acute or chronic health concern, please consult a trained health professional who can fully assess your needs and address them effectively. If you are seeking the medical advice of a trained ayurvedic expert, call or e-mail us for the number of a physician in your area. Check with your doctor before taking herbs or using essential oils when pregnant or nursing.

The Ayurvedic View on Blood Cleansing PART I

Ayurvedic Medicine emphasizes the importance of maintaining healthy blood and offers a wealth of information about herbs which constitute blood purifying attributes.

Charak Samhita:
Charak Samhita states that “blood plays a vital role in the sustenance of elan vital.” When blood is pure, one experiences strength, good complexion, happiness and longevity.1

Sushrut Samhita:
In Sushrut Samhita, it is said that blood is considered identical with the vital principle of a living organism; blood has properties such as redness, lightness, mobility and a fleshy smell which also characterize the five fundamental elements (earth, water, fire, air and ether). Thus blood is considered to contain the five elements in its composition.2

Blood is the origin of the body. It is blood that maintains vitality. Blood is life.
Hence it should be preserved with the greatest care

The Sanskrit term raktashodhan is defined as alterative or blood cleansing. Herbs with raktashodhan karma remove toxins from the blood.4

Rakta Dhatu
Rakta dhatu, the blood tissue, consists of red blood cells and carries nutrients to all the other tissues in the body such as oxygen from the lungs to the peripheral and deep connective tissues and hormones from endocrine glands to target tissues. In Ayurveda the concept of blood is different from the western view which includes both red blood cells and plasma.5 Ayurveda considers rakta its own tissue that is produced in the liver and spleen6 and when healthy, blood has a vivid red color and is neither too thin nor too transparent.7

Red blood cells have a lifespan of about 120 days and as they grow old they become fragile and break apart.8 Besides this natural aging process, rakta dhatu and the raktavahasrotas, the channels carrying blood in the body, become vitiated due to various dietary and lifestyle factors such as:

  • excessive use of pungent, salty, alkaline, acidic and oily foods and drinks;
  • heavy foods such as meat and yoghurt; overeating;
  • alcohol and other sour fermented drinks such as vinegar and whey;
  • taking food before the previous meal is digested;
  • deficiency of iron and B12;
  • rotten foods;
  • poor food combining;
  • sleeping during the day after taking food;
  • anger;
  • suppression of the urge for vomiting;
  • exposure to sun and fire;
  • lack of bloodletting in the fall;
  • antibiotics;
  • radiation;
  • and infections that are harmful to the liver and spleen.9,10,11

Due to the numerous ways for the blood to become vitiated, knowledge of how to purify and treat the blood to prevent and cure the various health issues due to vitiated blood is greatly needed.

Conditions Due To Vitiated Rakta 12,13,14,15

kushtha (various skin diseases incl. dermatitis and ringworm which are common when blood is impure)
Raktapitta (intrinsic hemorrhage) Asrgdara (menorrhagia)
Pramilaka (drowsiness) Mukha roga (mouth diseases)
Vidradhi (abscesses) Murcha-bhrama nidra (fainting)
Vatarakta (gout) Atisveda (excessive sweating)
Panduroga (anemia) Shvitra-shveta kustha (leucoderma/vitiligo)
Daha (burning sensation) Netrabhishyanda (conjunctivitis)
Arocak (anorexia) Mukhapakasotha (stomatitis)
Gulma/Arbuda  (tumors) Pliha and yakrt vrddhi (enlarged spleen and liver)
Indralupta (alopecia) Arshas (piles)
Visarpa (herpes) Various inflammatory diseases
Nilika (blue moles) Aching of limbs
Tilakalaka (black moles) Bad breath
Vyanga (freckles) Shivering
Kotha (urticaria) Hematuria
Asramandala (red circular patches) Rhinitis
Kamala (jaundice) Pimples
Trshna (thirst) Saline taste in mouth
Shirahshul (headache) Intoxication
Diseases which usually are curable but do not improve with appropriate treatments.16

The causes of blood vitiation are many and in the busy modern world, it is easy to develop impure blood. Fortunately, Mother Earth provides a large number of herbs that constitute raktashodhan karma.

Treatment of vitiated blood includes:

  • the use of Ayurvedic raktashodhan herbs,
  • proper fasting suitable for the individual,
  • Ayurvedic virechan (purgation) and
  • raktamoksha (bloodletting).10,17  

For more information about raktashodhan and Ayurvedic herbs with blood purifying properties stay tuned for part II.

This is for educational purposes only; NOT Medical advice.
Always consult your primary care physician before considering any new management.
Always consult with a professional ayurvedic provider before considering any new management


  1. Charak Samhita, Sutrasthana XXIV/4. Sharma RK, Das VB. Chowkhamba Sanskrit Series Office, Varanasi, India. 2007.
  2. Sushrut Samhita Sutrasthana XIV/8-9. By Kaviraj Kunjalal Bhishagratna. Chowkhamba Sanskrit Series Office, Varanasi, India. 2005.
  3. Sushrut Samhita Sutrasthana XIV/36. By Kaviraj Kunjalal Bhishagratna. Chowkhamba Sanskrit Series Office, Varanasi, India. 2005.
  4. Frawley D, Lad V. 1986. The Yoga of Herbs: an Ayurvedic guide to herbal medicine. Lotus Press, USA. Pages 49-50
  5. Lad V. 2002. Textbook of Ayurveda. Fundamental Principles. The Ayurvedic Press, Albuquerque, NM. Pages 113-114.
  6. Charak Samhita, Vimanasthana V/7-8. Sharma RK, Das VB. Chowkhamba Sanskrit Series Office, Varanasi, India. 2007.
  7. Sushrut Samhita Sutrasthana XIV/18. By Kaviraj Kunjalal Bhishagratna. Chowkhamba Sanskrit Series Office, Varanasi, India. 2005.
  8. Lad V. 2002. Textbook of Ayurveda. Fundamental Principles. The Ayurvedic Press, Albuquerque, NM. Pages 113-114.
  9. Charak Samhita, Vimanasthana V/14. Sharma RK, Das VB. Chowkhamba Sanskrit Series Office, Varanasi, India. 2007.
  10. Ranade S, Ranade S. 2005. A Textbook of Kayachikitsa. Chaukhamba Sanskrit Pratishthan, Delhi. Vol.1 pages 141-142.
  11. Charak Samhita, Sutrasthana XXIV/5-10. Sharma RK, Das VB. Chowkhamba Sanskrit Series Office, Varanasi, India. 2007.
  12. Charak Samhita, Sutrasthana XXVIII/11-12. Sharma RK, Das VB. Chowkhamba Sanskrit Series Office, Varanasi, India. 2007.
  13. Charak Samhita, Sutrasthana XXIV/11-17. Sharma RK, Das VB. Chowkhamba Sanskrit Series Office, Varanasi, India. 2007.
  14. Sushrut Samhita Sutrasthana XXIV/10. Kaviraj Kunjalal Bhishagratna. Chowkhamba Sanskrit Series Office, Varanasi, India. 2005.
  15. Astangha Hrdayam. Sutrasthana XI/8-9. Translated by Prof. KR Srikantha Murthy. Chowkhamba Krishnadas Academy, Varanasi, India.
  16. Astangha Hrdayam. Sutrasthana XXVII/1½-4½. Translated by Prof. KR Srikantha Murthy. Chowkhamba Krishnadas Academy, Varanasi, India.
  17. Charak Samhita, Sutrasthana XXIV/18. Sharma RK, Das VB. Chowkhamba Sanskrit Series Office, Varanasi, India. 2007.


Why Ice Water Is Harmful To Your Body


It is tempting to drink ice cold beverages in the summer heat, but check out the health hazards you present yourself with when you choose to drink cold beverages.


Why you should never drink ‪‎ice water or other cold beverages:

1.  When you drink cold beverages your ‪‎blood vessels shrink, your digestion becomes restricted and hydration is hindered.

2.  Instead of working to digest the food and absorb the nutrients to create energy, your body is ‪‎expending energy to regulate your temperature. This can lead to water loss.

3.  Drinking cold water after a meal creates ‪‎excess ‪‎mucus in your body, which can lead to a decrease in ‪‎immune system function, making it easier to catch colds and illnesses.

4.  If you eat food while drinking cold beverages or immediately after, the water temperature solidifies fats from the foods you have just eaten and your body in turn finds it hard to digest the unwanted fats from your body.

Some people say that drinking ice water is beneficial because it burns more calories. From an Ayurvedic point of view, it is not good to make your digestive system work harder; you want to makes things as easy on it as you can. Think of your digestion as a fire in your stomach; you need to provide the proper fuel so that it can burn optimally. If you dampen the fire with ice cold beverages, it will burn out creating symptoms like sluggish digestion, lack of appetite etc.


There are many other ways to burn calories such as exercise, practice Yogic breathing (pranayama), avoid refined carbohydrates (ie white sugar and white bread), limit snacking, and include more low glycemic foods into your diet such as chickpeas, broccoli, karella (bitter melon), eggplant, fenugreek and cinnamon.

Seasons in the Light of Ayurveda


The saints of Ayurveda observed how the elements are involved in the different seasons and times of day. They brought to light the importance of understanding this in order for us to prevent imbalance and disease.


When the heat escalates and summer comes, the fiery, sharp and light qualities of pitta increase in the body and mind. It may appear that during this time, the digestive fire should be strong; however, due to certain physiological factors, it is not. Hence, it is very important to follow proper discrimination regarding what is good for us and not to indulge in what the mind and senses attract. For example, ice cream is a common food during summer, and while there is nothing wrong with a little ice cream during the heat of summer, we have to resist the desire of wanting a second serving. When we practice moderation and non-attachment towards the foods we take, we can enjoy the pleasure and nourishment it offers.

The foods to favor during summer consist of bitter, astringent, healthy sweet, light and easily digestible foods. One should especially enjoy the great variety of colors of vegetables and fruits such as broccoli, brussel sprouts, kale, cauliflower, turnips, purple potatoes, karela (bitter gourd), cabbage, dandelion, burdock, lettuce, neem, green beans, peas, cucumber, zucchini, yellow squash, apples, pears, sweet berries, ripe mango, peach and watermelon. Prepare the foods with spices such as fennel, coriander, cardamom, cilantro, and coconut. When cooking beets, carrots, tomatoes, pumpkin, okra, spinach, and chard, make sure to include a lot of cooling foods such as coconut, cucumber and cilantro in the menu – especially when living in places where the summer heat is intense.

During this time, it is best to avoid all red meats, garlic, onion, and tomato sauce, as well as pungent and excessively sour and salty tastes. The mind easily gets aggravated by the heat and the risk of imbalanced
Pitta emotions, such as anger, irritation and criticism, increases. Thus, practicing more pranayama (breathing exercises) and meditating in the moonlight is recommended.

Please note that in tropical climate, the seasons are different; due to the high temperature and humidity, Pitta  and Kapha  prevail. Thus, it is recommended to favor cooling, bitter, astringent, healthy sweet taste such as grains and milk and lighter foods. Refer to the diets outlined during spring and summer.

Note that Vata can get provoked during tropical storms and other dramatic changes in the weather as well as lifestyle.


During fall, in the temperate climate, Vata predominates; leaves dry out and fall, wind increases, and it gets colder. Thus, at this time, in places such as North America and Europe, it is wise to include more digestive spices and soupy, moist, warm, oily, cooked foods with heating virya, and healthy sweet, sour and salty tastes. This is of great importance especially for people with a Vata  constitution. Those having a Pitta  constitution should be careful not to indulge in too much sour, salty, pungent and heating foods, and if Kapha, one should not eat too much sweet, sour and oily foods.

Suggestions for great meals include basmati rice, dal, vegetables such as pumpkin, beet, carrot, yam, asparagus, okra, parsnips, and spinach, paneer or other cheeses, prepared with an array of digestive spices such as turmeric, cumin, cardamom, cloves, cinnamon, black mustard seeds, roasted garlic, dill, basil, hing/asafetida and fenugreek.


During winter, in temperate regions at low altitude and close to the ocean, such as at the coast lines of North America and Europe, Kapha accumulates. This is a time of clouds, wet and heavy snow and cold temperatures. Thus cooked warm foods with greater pungency and heating virya  are preferred. Avoid old leftovers and excessive sweet and heavy foods. Enjoy hot water or herbal teas such as fresh ginger or cinnamon with honey throughout the day to stimulate the digestive fire.

If you have a
Pitta  constitution, be careful not to ignite the inner heat too much; instead of consuming pungent foods and drinks, enjoy the coziness of exterior heat by sitting next to a fireplace or wrapped in soft blankets with a cup of hot chamomile tea.

During winters that are particular long and cold as well as in high altitudes such as the Rocky Mountains in the USA, Austria, and Switzerland, the wind is more rough, the air is thinner and drier, and
Vata is likely to get provoked, thus follow more of a Vata soothing diet as in the fall.


Spring is the junction between winter and summer. This is a time of increasing daylight and warmer temperatures; flowers bloom and hibernating animals leave their winter sleeping places. Mother Earth is awakening while the sun melts the snow. In early spring, Kapha  easily gets aggravated because the water and earth elements liquefy. Just as rivers tend to overflow at this time due to spring floods, the body is exposed to internal overflow of the Kapha  attributes. Thus it is important to favor dry, light, rough, warm, bitter, astringent and pungent foods to help clear mucus and excess moisture from the body. If suffering from ailments due to Kapha  aggravation, this is a supreme time to cleanse the body.

During later spring, as the sun rises and it gets warmer, Pitta  starts accumulating and the need for foods and drinks with more cooling virya increase. This of course is most important for people with a Pitta  constitution or aggravation.




Preventative Care With Ayurveda ― Prevention Better Than Cure

Ayurveda Is A Preventative Science.
The main focus of Ayurveda is on health instead of disease. For this reason, maintaining health and preventing disease takes precedence over cure. Optimum health and vitality are achieved through the most appropriate diet to fit with one’s own individual body-mind constitution. Quite simply, we are formed by the food we eat and the things we do. By determining the best selection of food items and correct activities, it is possible to guarantee a long life with good immunity and strong stamina.

Food as Medicine or Poison

In Ayurveda, proper diet is regarded as the foundation of good health. However, diet is tricky; food can be medicine for one person but poison for another. The key is to understand one’s own constitution and power of digestion. Then one will know which foods to eat and which to avoid, and also how and when to eat. The old slogan: “Breakfast is the most important meal of the day” may be a good advice for some, but very bad advice for others. Likewise “dinner at nine” may sound romantic, but could be equally unwise ― at least from an Ayurvedic point of view.

In order to maintain good health (and get all-round development), it is important to be in balance in accordance to our constitution. Diet plays a major role in keeping this equanimity. Every food contains the five elements which manifest as tastes and qualities that affect each person differently. Therefore, it is important to know the basic effects of the products we use in our cooking to achieve the desired balance needed for spiritual growth.

The Effect Of Tastes Upon Doshas:
Each taste can serve as a way to either provoke or balance our body and mind. If we have a lot of earth element (Kapha) in our constitution and we eat excessive sweets, Kapha is likely to be provoked, which can manifest as overweight, laziness, sluggishness, congestion, or raised blood sugar. If we have a lot of fire element (Pitta), and we eat too much pungent taste such as chili, we may experience burning sensation, heartburn, loose stools, inflammation, acne, irritability, anger, or ulcers. If too much astringent and bitter are consumed when having a predominantly air/ether (Vata) constitution, weight loss, dry skin, coldness, constipation, worry or anxiety may be experienced.

Finding Balance With Tastes: 
On the other hand, if one experiences aggravation of Kapha, inclusion of more bitter, astringent and pungent tastes in the diet can help balance the earth/water elements. If Pitta (fire) is provoked, the bitter, astringent and healthy sweet tastes are helpful, and if Vata is aggravated, taking healthy sweet, sour and salty taste can help balance the air/ether elements.


Maintaining Good Digestion With Ayurveda - A Pillar of Good Health

Maintaining Good Digestion With Ayurveda
According to Ayurveda, one of the main causes of all diseases is rooted in the impairment of the body's main principle called Agni, the fire of digestion. A faulty fire leads to improper functioning of the tissue fires and can lead to poor synthesis of tissues.

Visualize your digestion as a fire in the stomach; you need to provide the proper fuel and conditions so that it can burn optimally. If you dampen the fire or do not feed it, it will burn out. If you feed it too much or with the wrong fuel, it will burn too hot and be out of control.

When Agni (fire of digestion) is strong, we are free from symptoms such as:

  • Irregular appetite
  • Bloating
  • Loud or smelly gas
  • Constipation
  • Excessive burping
  • Intense and unbearable hunger
  • Abdominal cramping
  • Acidity
  • Heartburn
  • Nausea
  • Loose stool or diarrhea
  • Lack of appetite
  • Heaviness and/or sluggishness
  • Lethargy

Because some of these symptoms are so common, they are often considered normal; however, each and every symptom is a sign of imbalance occurring in the bodily system.

If we pay attention to these signs, we can correct the imbalance in the early stage before it begins the disease process, leading to more serious issues.

Want To Learn More About Agni

Importance of Being Mindful While Eating

Avoid multitasking.
We can only focus on one thing at a time. Charak Samhita , the ancient Ayurvedic text containing the conversation between the medical sage Atreya and his disciple Agnivesa, states that there is no multiplicity of the mind. The mind is only one and therefore only one sense faculty is motivated at a time; all sense organs are not active simultaneously. It may appear as if we can taste the food and at the same time watch television, however, this is not correct. In reality the various sense faculties are active in a consecutive order, and can be observed when attending to the subtleties of what happens while taking food.

Food for Thought ~We are what we think.
The importance of positive thinking is well-known and while eating we should pay attention to what thoughts and feelings are moving through us. The energy and vibration of our thoughts manifest in the foods we eat. Thus, maintaining a state of prayer and positive attitude when taking food reflects outwardly in our lives.